Read 'Eruptions of God. Roberto Rossellini. Stromboli' by Corry Shores
For [French philosopher Henri] Bergson, the brain does not produce a representation of what it perceives. Perception is the mutual influence of images upon one another, of which the brain is only another image—it does not “produce” anything, but filters impulses into actions or non-actions. The implications for film are two-fold. By addressing the perceiving subject as one image among the world of images, Bergson steps outside models that locate perception and memory within the mind of the subject. I would further suggest, following [Gilles] Deleuze, that Bergson’s theory of matter allows us to see film not as a fixed representation, a concrete image of a “real” object, but as an image in its own right, with its own duration and axes of movement. What we might call the film-image thus occurs in the gap between subject and object, through the collision of affective images.
Deleuze’s formulation of the film-image as a mobile assemblage (sometimes a frame, sometimes a shot, a sound, or the film as a whole) lends itself to this reading. It refuses to reduce the physical image on the screen to a mere reproduction of an assumed “real” object it represents. Such a formulation similarly reevaluates the relationship between the concrete optical and sonic images that comprise the film. Rather than conceiving of each component as a “building block,” it allows for the shifting conglomerations of elements which are themselves dynamic and mobile. A film cannot be distilled to a structure that originates from outside itself. Instead, each film-image is contingent, particular, and evolving.
The distinction between the time- and movement-images becomes more clear in this context. Rather than a question of either content or form, the difference lies in their affective power, whether they are bent toward action, in the case of the movement image, or if they open into different temporal modalities. It is in this second case that the time-image falls, and it is here that Deleuze locates the creative potential of film. This potential does not exist solely within the physical image itself, however, but is contained as well in the modes of perception and thinking that it triggers. Much like the time-image, the mental faculty most attuned to the openness of time, according to Bergson, is that of intuition.
Amy Herzog, 'Affectivity, Becoming, and the Cinematic Event: Gilles Deleuze and the Futures of Feminist Film Theory', in Koivunen A. & Paasonen S. (eds),Conference proceedings for affective encounters: rethinking embodiment in feminist media studies , University of Turku, School of Art, Literature and Music, Media Studies, Series A, No. 49
Film Studies For Free lovingly presents its long list of links to online and openly accessible film-studies resources of note pertaining to the work of French philosopher Gilles Deleuze. Like lots of continental theorists invoked in Film Studies, 'Deleuze' has been somewhat of a moveable feast, but, as the links below testify, in recent years this particular feast has been a highly nourishing one for a variety of approaches to this discipline.
This FSFF entry is one of two posts to be dedicated to the fond memory of David Vilaseca, Professor of Hispanic Studies and Critical Theory at Royal Holloway, University of London. Professor Vilaseca tragically died in a road traffic accident in London on February 9, 2010. His achievements in life were many, as this touching obituary written by his good friend and mentor Professor Paul Julian Smith eloquently sets out. Both in person and in his writing he was an inspiration. He will be much missed.
FSFF's author had met David Vilaseca on a number of occasions over the years and is a keen follower of his brilliant work on queer, Catalan, and Hispanic culture. She wishes to express her sincere condolences to David's family, friends, and colleagues.
David Vilaseca had a particular interest in Deleuzian philosophy as well as in the critique of Deleuze's work by fellow French philosopher Alain Badiou. Three of his related essays are linked to below, and interested FSFF readers should also look out for his third book Negotiating the Event: Post-deconstructive Subjectivities in Spanish Literature and Film, to be published this Autumn, which will undoubtedly explore further the pertinence of Deleuze and Badiou's work for film studies.
Good Film and Cultural Studies-related Deleuzian websites:
- Immanence (Adrian Ivakhiv) (see especially the entries on 'Why Deleuze?' and 'ecology, Deleuze/Tarkovsky, and the time-image')
Deleuzian film studies:
- Carolyn Abbs, 'Virginia Woolf and Gilles Deleuze: Cinematic e-motion and the Mobile Subject', Interactive Media, Issue 1, 2005
- Garnet Creighton Butchart, 'Thinking Through Cinema: On Rodowick's Gilles Deleuze's Time Machine', Film-Philosophy, Vol. 4, 2000
- D.H. Fleming , 'Review: Patricia Pisters (2003) The Matrix of Visual Culture: Working with Deleuze in Film Theory Stanford: Stanford University Press', Film-Philosophy, 13:1, April 2009
- Theresa L. Geller, 'The Cinematic Relations of Corporeal Feminism', rhizomes 11/12, fall 2005/spring 2006
- Michael Goddard, 'Beauty Lies in the Eye (So Why Can't I Touch It?) [on 'Deleuze, Guattari and the Philosophy of Expression', special issue of the Canadian Review of Comparative Literature/Revue Canadienne de Littérature Comparée, guest edited by Brian Massumi ]', Film-Philosophy, No. 25, September 1998
- Catherine Grant, 'Cinesexuality [review of Patricia MacCormack's book]', Times Higher Education, December 18, 2008
- Markos Hadjioannou, 'Into Great Stillness, Again and Again: Gilles Deleuze's Time and the Constructions of Digital Cinema', rhizomes 16, Summer 2008
- Amy Herzog, 'Affectivity, Becoming, and the Cinematic Event: Gilles Deleuze and the Futures of Feminist Film Theory', in Koivunen A. & Paasonen S. (eds),Conference proceedings for affective encounters: rethinking embodiment in feminist media studies , University of Turku, School of Art, Literature and Music, Media Studies, Series A, No. 49
- Will Higbee, 'Ungrounding the Narrative of Nation (Review: David Martin-Jones (2006) Deleuze, Cinema and National Identity: Narrative Time in National Contexts Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press)', Film-Philosophy, 13:1, April 2009
- Jan Jagodzinski, 'Michael Haneke: The Spectatorship of Self-refleXivity; Between Lacan and Deleuze', 'The Scope of Interdisciplinarity' Conference, Center for Integrated Studies, November 2008
- Jeff Karnicky, 'Georges Bataille and the Visceral Cinema of Kathryn Bigelow', Enculturation, Vol. 2, No. 1, Fall 1998
- Kara Keeling, 'Deleuze and Cinema', Critical Commons, 2010 ("The following selection of film clips from films discussed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze were compiled in the Fall of 2009 by the participants in Professor Kara Keeling's Critical Studies graduate seminar on Deleuze and Culture at the University of Southern California")
- Jeanne Marie Kusina, 'Difference, Repetition, Disappearance, and Death: A Deleuzian Consideration of Kiyoshi Kurosawa's Kairo', rhizomes 16, Summer 2008
- Laura U. Marks, 'Haptic Visuality: Touching with the Eyes', Framework" the Finnish Art Review, No. 2, 2004 (large pdf - scroll down to p. 79)
- Jakob Nilsson, ' Crystal Matter: Virtual Structures and the Search for Belief', rhizomes 16, Summer 2008
- Jenny O'Connor, 'Quentin Tarantino: Gilles Deleuze's Cinematic "Falsifier"', rhizaomes 16, Summer 2008
- Tom O’Connor, ‘Uncontrollably Herself’: Deleuze’s Becoming-woman in the Horror Films of Michael Almereyda', Horror Studies, 1:1, 2010
- Edward R. O'Neill, 'Apprehending Deleuze Apprehending Cinema [on Der Film bei Deleuze/Le cinema selon Deleuze, edited by Fahle & Engell], Film-Philosophy, Vol. 2, No. 2, January 1998
- Susan Pelle and Catherine Fox, 'Queering Desire/Querying Consumption: Rereading Visual Images of ‘Lesbian' Desire in Lisa Cholodenko’s High Art',thirdspace 6/1, 2006
- Claire Perkins, 'Becoming-democratic: Donnie Darko and other Recent Suburban Utopias', rhizomes 16, Summer 2008
- Claire Perkins, 'Cinephilia and Monstrosity: The Problem of Cinema in Deleuze's Cinema Books', Senses of Cinema, No. 8, 2000
- Patricia Pisters, 'From Mouse to Mouse: Overcoming Information', Enculturation, Vol. 2, No. 1, Fall 1998
- Richard I. Pope, 'In Kubrick's Crypt, a Derrida/Deleuze Monster; or, An-Other Return to 2001', Film-Philosopy, Vol. 7 No. 22, August 2003
- Jason Kelly Roberts, 'Review of The Virtual Life of Film by D.N. Rodowick [London: Harvard University Press, 2007]', Scope, Issue 13, February 2009
- D.N. Rodowick, 'Unthinkable Sex: Conceptual Personae and the Time-Image,' (In)Visible Culture 3 (2000)
- D.N. Rodowick, Webcast: from “Immanent Choreographies: Deleuze and Neo-Aesthetics,” Tate Modern, London, England, 21-22 September 2001
- Ilaria Serra, 'The Female Spectator’s Laughter: Anti- Oedipus to Free Female Spectatorship', Deleuze and Feminism special issue, edited by Claire Claire Colebrook, firstname.lastname@example.org, no.8, 2003 (scroll down pdf to p. 100)
- Steven Shaviro, 'The Cinematic Body Redux', originally published in Parallax 14:1 (February 2008), 48-54, The Pinocchio Theory
- Steven Shaviro, 'Emotion Capture: Affect in Digital Film', Projections, Volume 1, Issue 2, Winter 2007: 63-82
- Steven Shaviro , 'The “Wrenching Duality” of Aesthetics: Kant, Deleuze, and the “Theory of the Sensible”', The Pinocchio Theory, November 10, 2007
- Robert Sinnerbrink, 'Time, Affect, and the Brain: Deleuze’s Cinematic Aesthetics', Film-Philosophy, 12:1, 2008
- Melanie Swalwell, 'The Senses and Memory in Intercultural Cinema [on Laura U. Marks's The Skin of the Film]', Film-Philosophy, Vol. 6, No. 32, 2002
- Michael Angelo Tata, 'Warholian Machinehood II: World Text as External Time Consciousness', rhizomes 16, Summer 2008
- Donato Totaro, 'Gilles Deleuze's Bergsonian film Project: Part 1: Cinema 1: The Movement-Image', Offscreen Journal, March 31, 1999
- Donato Totaro, 'Gilles Deleuze's Bergsonian Film Project: Part 2: Cinema 2: The Time-Image', Offscreen Journal, March 31, 1999
- David Vilaseca, 'Deleuze and the Barcelona School: Time in Vicente Aranda's Fata Morgana (1965), in Cristina Sánchez-Conejero, ed., Spanishness in the Spanish Novel and Film of the 20th Century. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008; pp.21-32 (Two page excerpt - scroll down in pdf)
- David Vilaseca, 'How Does One Escape One’s Own Simulacrum? Subjectivity and the Asceticism of Being in Terenci Moix’s Autobiography', Hispanic Review (spring 2008)
- Edward Willatt, 'Review: Eyal Peretz (2007) Becoming Visionary: Brian De Palma’s Cinematic Education of the Senses. Stanford University Press: Palo Alto, CA', Film-Philosophy, 12:1, 2008
- James Williams, The Transversal Thought of Gilles Deleuze: Encounters and Influences, 2005 (large pdf)
- Nina Zimnik, 'What Will This Century Be Known As? Deleuze and Resistance for Theory on 'A Deleuzian Century?', special issue of theSouth Atlantic Quarterly, Film-Philosophy, No. 16, June 1998